Friday, February 7, 2020
Informal Settlement in Johannesburg - Research Paper Example With each single factor in a community contributing to the general quality of life of each and every individual residing there. Dr. Trevor Dummer stated that: Ã¢â¬Å"Geography and health are intrinsically linked. Where we are born, live, study and work directly influences our health experiences: the air we breathe, the food we eat, the viruses we are exposed to and the health services we can accessÃ¢â¬ . (Health Geography: Supporting Public health, Policy and Planning, 2008) Richards, et al. (2006) indicated in his paper, that according to the World Health Organization, Ã¢â¬Å"deficiency of water, electricity, sanitation, ventilation, food preparation and storage in informal dwellings are associated with a range of health risks and diseases.Ã¢â¬ This paper tackles the effects of the state of living and the situation of the informal settlersÃ¢â¬â¢ community in Johannesburg in Africa on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s or a residentÃ¢â¬â¢s physical and mental health. Specifically, this paper discusses the informal settlersÃ¢â¬â¢ situation in Johannesburg, Africa and its effects on the settlersÃ¢â¬â¢ health, thus, aiming to try to help establish a correlation between diseases and location, prevalence and how diseases spread, a main concern in the study of health geography. REVIEW OF LITERATURE According to Mathee et al (2009), urbanization is currently taking place in areas of concentrated disadvantage, meaning in areas where large numbers of urban dwellers congregate and live in informal settlements. Jo Vearey, in the book Migration and Inequality (2013) stated that South Africa which has long been associated with the movement of people and cross-border migration was related to labor migration within the agricultural and mining sectors. Migration into South Africa has increased since the end of apartheid and Johannesburg is one of the cities that became a destination for people from different parts of the country and even from outside the continent. In Johannesburg where the population is composed of 3.2 million individuals, inequality among inhabitants is rapidly growing. And because of rapid urbanization, housing and other services proves to be challenging which results to poor households still living in informal settlements, and occupying small brick and corrugated iron backyard dwellings and derelict inner-city buildings (Mathee, et. al. 2009). Few et al. (2004) stated that in the late 1980s to early 1990s, industrial buildings such as offices, factories, warehouses and bakeries were converted and taken over for residential purposes, with 5% of the dwellings found to be overcrowded, with some buildings housing as many as 72 people. He further stated that these dwellings often have very small rooms, densely occupied, having poor or no ventilation and insulation, lacking privacy, with inadequate lighting or light sources, having common access and circulation routes and generally have inadequate sanitation facilities and water supply. Johann esburg is considerably young, having been only established in the 1880s as an off-shoot to the discovery of gold in the area. The city is an interesting area to study African urbanization relationships pertaining to health, inequality and migration. Informal urban locales are generally associated with significant health concerns and consequences as informal settlements are recognized to be important and related to migration in cities (Migration and Ineq
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
The Role of Conflict Essay In the establishment of leader-follower relationships, harmony is required in order to achieve the best possible results within an organization. But in the real world, perfect harmony is not likely to happen. Leaders and followers have varying degrees of intellect, perception, and principles Ã¢â¬â and these are the very things that contribute to conflicts in an organization. While conflict can easily be assumed to have a negative effect on a leader-follower relationship, it plays a special role within the community Ã¢â¬â a role that is as equally important as harmony. The main function of conflicts is to bring out the best in every plan, policy, and method that is implemented by the leader or the group as a whole. Conflicts cause members to voice out their views and opinions to their leaders or other members with the aim of correcting what they think or feel are not right about it. Consequently, this ensures that every step that the group makes passes the strict scrutiny and evaluation of its own members and leaders (Cuban 29). Conflicts challenge the actions of leaders or other group members. People who stimulate conflicts are not necessarily bad for the organization. In fact, conflict indicates that the group is composed of people who are morally involved and committed to all the pursuits that their organization are willing to take. The actual people who seemingly create conflict are there to ensure that all steps taken by the group conforms well within social norms and ideology of the organization they belong to. They are there to protect the interests of the group and make certain that everything is done for its greater glory. They are actually more involved, although in a negative way, than those members who choose not to air out their views, no matter how right they think they are. In essence, conflicts makers benefit the organization more than the member or the leader who is indifferent to what transpires around them (Harolds Wood 203). Conflicts also bring about the best in a leader. Conflicts, whether it is aimed to make the organization good or worse, is an issue that a leader needs to deal with. A capable leader can be evaluated in terms of performance and skills by to his ability to handle conflicts. His ability to remain as a leader can be assessed through the techniques he or she uses to address the problem and the actual solutions he was able to implement (Korabik, et al 409). Works Cited Cuban, Larry. Ã¢â¬Å"Conflict and Leadership in the Superintendency.Ã¢â¬ Phi Delta Kappan 67.1 (1985): 28-30. Harolds, J Wood, BP. Ã¢â¬Å"Conflict Management and ResolutionÃ¢â¬ J Am Coll Radiol 3.3 (2006): 200-2006. Korabik, Karen, Baril, Galen L, Watson Carol. Ã¢â¬Å"Managers Conflict Management Style And Leadership Effectiveness: The Moderating Effects Of GenderÃ¢â¬ Sex Roles 29.5-6 (1993):405-420.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Vietnam War Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã When most people hear the words Vietnam, what does it make them think about? The main answer most people come up with is death, or policing actions of the United States. The Vietnam War wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t about death it was about the French Colonial Rule of South Vietnam. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å"The Vietnam War was the legacy of Frances failure to suppress nationalist forces in Indochina as it struggled to restore its colonial dominion after World War II.Ã¢â¬ This is the start of Vietnam War. This is also one way that America was brought into the conflict of Vietnam. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The war was further escalated by North Vietnam trying to go in South Vietnam and turn them into a communist nation. Then America was brought more deeply into Vietnam as a policing effort to stop communism. Ã¢â¬Å"Military leaders viewed the Vietnam War as the Chinese doctrine of revolutionary war in action, (using Chinese and Russian arms to boot.)Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The United States had a geopolitical aim, they were to try and contain the spread of communism. This is one of the main reasons for America to go to Vietnam, to help stop the spread of communism the Ã¢â¬Å"United States supported the anti-communist regime known as the Republic of Vietnam,Ã¢â¬ or South Vietnam. The United States was in Vietnam to stop the North Vietnam communism movement by means of the U.S. staring air raids in the country. Ã¢â¬Å" Despite the U.S. military aid, heavy bombing, the growing U.S. troop commitment, and some political stability in South Vietnam after the election, the two countries were still unable to defeat the Viet Cong and North Vietnam forces.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
The modern economists are of the view that natural resources iÃ¢â¬ ¦ e forest minerals, climate, water power etc. play in important role in the economic development of an country. A country which has abundant natural resources is in position to development more rapidly than a country which is deficient in such resources. They here how ere emphasize that the presence of abundant resources is not a sufficient condition of economic growth.Physical factures they say are passive factors of economic growth. They are to be combined with human resources of a country who are active facture of economic development. Human resources of a country are the size of population rate of growth of population urban rural distribution of people and quality of population. The quality of population as measured by health standards educational levels and technology is vitally important in influencing a nation's cultural and economic progress.A country which has developed the skills and knowledge of its peopl e can exploit natural resources, build social economic and political organizations and can carry forward national development. The less developed countries of the world are now making investment in human persons for increasing their skills abilities ideals health on the job training programmers. These productive investments have a strong bearing upon increasing human capabilities which is called human capital. 2. What is human capital? Its Role in Economic Development?Human capital can be described as the skills training and health acquired through on the job training and education Michael Pakistan Park in defines it as: Ã¢â¬ The skill and knowledge of human beings. Ã¢â¬ It is also defined as: Ã¢â¬Å"The endowment of abilities to produce that exists in each human being. It can be increased through formal education, on the job training and improved health and psychological well being. To be more precise. If the people of a country are well educated, well nourished, skilled and h ealthy, they are said to have more human capital. 3. Human capital formation: Human capital formation as described by Professor Harrison as Ã¢â¬ the process of acquiring and increasing the number of person who have the skills, education and experience which are critical for the economic and political development of a country. Ã¢â¬ Human capital formation is the act of increasing the productive qualities of labor force by providing more education and by increasing skills, health and notarization level. According T. W. Schultz, there are five ways of developing human capital. i) Provision of health facilities which affect the life expectancy, strength, vigor and vitality of the people. (ii) Provision of on the job training which enhances the skill of labor force. (iii) Arranging education at the primary, secondary and higher levels. (iv) Study and extension programmer for the adults. (v) Provision of adequate migration facilities to families to adjust to changing job opportunities . 4. Importance of human capital: Human capital is the fundamental source of economic growth. It is a source of both increased productivity and technological advance.In fact the major difference between the developed and developing countries is the rate of progress in human capital. The under developed countries need human capital to staff new and expanding government services to introduce new system of land use and new methods of agriculture, to develop new means of communication to carry forward industrialization and to build the education system. Prof. Galbraith is right in saying that Ã¢â¬ we now get larger part of economic growth from investment in men and improvements brought about by improved men. Ã¢â¬Ë 5. Problems of human capital formation in LDC's: The main problems of human capital formation in less developed countries (LDC's) including Pakistan in brief are as under. (i) Faster increase in population: The population of almost all developing countries of world includi ng Pakistan is increasing faster than rate of accumulation of human capital. As a result thereof, these countries are not making the satisfactory use sector expenditure on education is about 2. 5% of GDP for the last over five years. ii) Defective pattern of investment in education: In the developing countries of the world, the governments are giving priority to primary education for increasing literacy rate.Secondary education which provides critical skills needed for economic developed remains neglected. Another problem related to investment in education is that in the public and private sectors there is a mushroom growth of universities without trying to improve their standard of education. There are also mass failures at primary, secondary & higher levels of education resulting in wastage of the scarce resources of the countries. iii) More stress on the provision of building and equipments: Another major problem of investment in human capital in developing countries of the world is the politicians and administrator lay more stress on the construction of buildings and provision of equipments than on the provision of qualified staff. It has been observed that foreign qualified teachers and doctors are appointed in rural areas where there is little usefulness of them. (iv) Shortage of health and nutrition facilities: In the less developed countries of the world there is shortage of trained nurses qualified doctors medical equipment, medicines etc.The less availability of health facilities pose threat to the millions of the people living there. The people are faced with unsatisfactory sanitary conditions, polluted water, high fertility and death rates urban slums, illiteracy etc. All these deficiencies affect the health of the people reduce their life expectancy. (v) No facilities of on the job training: On the job training or in service training is very essential for improving or acquiring of new skills to the persons employed in various importance is given o n the job training for the employees.The result is that the efficiency and knowledge of the workers remains technicians etc. is therefore of utmost importance for the efficient use of human resources. (vi) Study programme for adults: Study programme for adults can also be introduced for improving literacy rate. Programme for adults was introduced in many under developed countries of the world including Pakistan for providing basic education. increasing skills farmers and small industrialists. The scheme has miserably failed as no interest was shown by the adults in getting such training. (vii) Half earted measures for promotion of employment: In most of the world the ratio of unemployed or under employed persons is very large. For increasing employment and reducing under employment proper investment in human capital is required which is visibly lacking in LDC's. The govt. of Pakistan has taken a number of steps for increasing employment opportunities in the country such as establish ment of SME Bank for the promotion of self employment at the grass root level, encouraging domestic and foreign investment for increasing employment opening of technical and vocational training centers etc. tc. (viii)No manpower planning: Due to non availability of reliable data there is little manpower planning in less developed countries of the world including of course Pakistan. As a result thereof, there is no matching of demand and supply of different types of skills. The result is that large number of skilled and highly qualified persons remain underemployed. The frustration and discontentment among the unemployed or underemployed graduate and post graduates result in brain drain from the country. It is a huge loss to resources of developing countries. ix) Neglect of agriculture education: In LDC's where agriculture is the major sector of the economy. , very little attention is paid for educating the farmers to the use of modern agricultural practices. Unless the farmers are p rovided agricultural education and training on the fields, they will not be able to raise the agricultural the outlook of the farmers. 6. IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN CAPITAL ON SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTP: In today's world production of goods and services on large scale are knowledge intensive.Knowledge can be imported and increased by making investment in education and provision of better health services to man. which is called investment in Man' or Human Capital Formation. The modern economists are of the view that a dollar invested on education bring a greater increase in national income than a dollar spent on dams, roads, bridges or other tangible capital goods. In the words of Professor, Galbraith, we now get the larger part of our industrial growth not from more capital investment but from investment in men and improvement brought about by improved men. Ã¢â¬Ë The importance of human capital on economic and social development is now disused in brief. (i) Human Capital as a creat ive and productive resource: In all the developing countries of the world physical capital is invested in the construction of roads, dams, light and heavy industries, schools, hospitals etc. For proper investment and operation of these projects at low cost, you need the services of technicians, engineers, administrators, etc. If priority is not given to human investment and adequate resources are not invested in a man, the physical capital cannot be properly used.It will remain unutilized, underutilized, and misutilized. (ii) Rise in Marginal Efficiency of Capital: Human capital is now regarded as the most potent source of economic growth. It is a way of increasing output by increasing not the quantity of lab our but its quality. Investment in human capital improves the skills of work force and helps in raising marginal efficiency of capital. (iii) Utilization of foreign loans: The advanced countries of the world are assisting the developing countries by providing them grants, loans food supplies and technical expertise etc.The better education, the provision of knowledge, skills, expertise helps in proper utilization of foreign loans. (iv) Utilization of surplus manpower: The underdeveloped countries in general have abundance unskilled and untrained manpower. There is widespread under-employment and disguised unemployment in the urban and rural areas. The investment in right type of education, training, skill, health and nutrition sound manpower planning, on the job training programs etc. can go a long way in absorbing the surplus labor force and developing job opportunities. v) Effect on Health and Nutrition: Human capital formation also calls for investment in health and nutrition. If is a common knowledge that poverty, ill health, illiteracy and low productivity constitutes a vicious circle of poverty. If proper investment is made in health, nutrition drinking water etc. there will be improvement in the health of the people. There will be a desire of the p eople to work and increase production. The improvement in health status of the people thus helps in reducing population growth raising income and higher economic growth in the country. (vi) Social Change:Investment in human capital makes a positive contribution towards improving and brining fast changes in the economic and social life of the people of developing countries. Investment in human capital raises the general living standard of the people in less developed countries, it improves the quality of population i. e.. health and nutrition, literacy, skill, knowledge, desire to work. The surplus manpower is better mobilized and utilized for economic development. There is also a change in social climate of the people. The rate of social mobility increases. There is increased urbanization and industrialization.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Overseas Education: To Study or Not to Study? In most cases any travel opportunity is an exciting perspective you are impatiently looking forward to. Going overseas to study in some university is definitely an expectation of this kind, though it has its pros and cons. Therefore, the matter requires precise study before any decision is made, be it for or against. The advantages of studying abroad are quite numerous. First of all, it is intercultural experience. You mix up with new people and study their language, learn more about their culture and represent your own. This may also be considered a boosting personality building and educative activity. However, socializing and studying language can easily be done on the web. It will prevent you from cultural shock, all sorts of differences and even discrimination the other side of the coin. You have to weight you perspectives quite seriously here. However, being able to face the challenge of going abroad is a crash course in personal independence. You get to know other people and, whatÃ¢â¬â¢s more important, get to know more of yourself. Personal independence requires more of internal dialogue, and thus, stipulates to learn more of your character and individuality. Nevertheless, the necessity to leave your family and friends may cause great inconveniences and stress when plunging into alien culture. The very essence of human nature is communication. We require society to exercise our individuality and develop. An overseas educational opportunity is a great challenge of individual growth, which cannot be regarded in strictly negative or positive way. By all means, it is an education experience to be approached in a very balanced and individual way.
Friday, December 27, 2019
Both attention and perception are concepts that relate to the cognitive development of human beings. Both concepts contribute to our ability to control and direct the processing of stimuli, whether it is physical, visual, auditory or retrieved from stored memory. Perception is the ability to make sense of our surroundings, whereas attention is the ability to concentrate on any perceived stimuli. A link between perception and attention comes from an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to choose which stimuli to allocate their attention towards. This ability is important due to the vast amount of information in which humans are presented with on a daily basis. By using selective attention, individuals are able to focus their attention on a specificÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This is a lack of attention which is not caused by any visual or auditory deficits. It is when an individual fails to recognise an unexpected yet obvious stimulus. When there is too much stimuli for one to attend to, a Ã¢â¬Ëtemporary blindnessÃ¢â¬â¢ effect can occur and as a result individuals may fail to see unanticipated, yet obvious stimuli. There is a vast amount of research which suggests that no conscious perception can occur without attention. In Mack and Rock s (1998) study, subjects performed several trials of a length judgment task consisting of 2 lines in the form of a cross, presented on a computer screen. On one of the trials, an additional image was presented as well as the cross and participants were asked of their awareness of this. Results showed that a large percentage of participants failed to even notice the added figure, which suggests the existence of inattentional blindness. Mack and Rock (1998) therefore concluded that attention is needed for conscious perception. A similar conclusion was drawn by Rock and Gutman (1981) when they conducted a study where subjects were presented with a series of images of two overlapping lines. These were novel or familiar items and the lines were presented in different colours. The participants were instructed to only pay attention to one of the two lines, which caused inattention for the unattended figure. The results of Rock and GutmanÃ¢â¬â¢s (1981) study showed that participants
Thursday, December 19, 2019
EPICAC is a short story which is written by Kurt Vonnegut and published in his book Ã ¨Welcome to the Monkey HouseÃ ¨ (1968). This book is a collection of short stories with different themes from war-time epics to futuristic thrillers. This story was first published before in 1950 for Colliers Weekly. Kurt Vonnegut (1992-2007) is considered one of the most influential American novelists of the twentieth century. Some of his most important literary works are the following: Mother night (1961), Slaughterhouse-Five (1969) and Breakfast of Champions (1973). Summary of the story: The narrator begins by explaining his reasons for telling the EPICACÃ ´s story.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The designer of EPICAC is Von Kleigstadt who created it in order to be used to solve problems related to the war and any other subject. It could plot the course of a rocket from anywhere on earth. Evidence: Ã ¨Von Kleigstadt and the Brass wanted him to be a super computing machine that(who) could plot the course of a rocket anywhere on earth to the second button from the bottom on Joe StalinÃ ´s overcoat, if necessaryÃ ¨ (pages 297-298) Von Kleigstadt is inspired in two real persons. One of t hem is Wernher von Braun (1912-1977) who was a famous rocket engineer of the 20th century. He also was a member of the Nazi party and he worked for Adolf Hitler; he designed the V-2 rocket for him during the Word War II. Later, he was taken to the U.S. as part of the then-secret Operation Paperclip which was a program used to recruit the scientists of Nazi Germany for employment by the United States in the straight after the World War II (1939Ã¢â¬â45). Later, he became a naturalized U.S. citizen. The second one is J. Robert Opeinheimmer (1904-1967) who was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California,Show MoreRelatedEpicac Analysis1029 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAnalysis of EPICAC A short story written by Kurt Vonnegut The short story EPICAC is written by Kurt Vonnegut. It is a fictional text about a very intelligent and expensive computer, EPICAC, built by Dr. Ormand Von Kleigstadt to solve complex worldly problems. The narrator works with EPICAC on the night shift along with another mathematician; Pat Kilgallen, whom the narrator wishes to marry, but because of his lack of romance and poetic skills she keeps turning him down. That is how one day theRead MoreThe Shah of Bratpur in Players Piano1601 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesOne literary technique that authors often employ is to use a character who is a Ã¢â¬Å"visitorÃ¢â¬ to provide insight into a societyÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. In Kurt VonnegutÃ¢â¬â¢s novel Player Piano, the author employs the Shah of Bratpuhr in such a manner. Instead of seeing a society that is better because of its reliance on machines, the Shah instead observes that the people of Ilium have become slaves to their machines instead. Instead of observing a society that worships a reli gious God and looks to him for inspirationRead MoreHumor And Science Fiction By Kurt Vonnegut1298 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesKurt Vonnegut was a very popular American writer. He wrote novels and short-stories filled with humor and science-fiction. His writing has become so iconic mainly due to his rule breaking literary innovation and the serious moral vision and cutting social commentary incorporated in his writing. One of the most recurring themes discussed by Vonnegut in his work is individuality. He constantly highlights the importance of individuality in an ironic way; by displaying the negative repercussions of anRead MoreEssay about The Role of Technology in Kurt Vonneguts Writing2806 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesbOutline/b br brThesis: Technology is the villain in Kurt Vonneguts works because of his hatred of corporate insensitivity and his awareness of the destructive social impact of science and technology. br brI. Kurt Vonnegut has a great awareness of the destructive social impact of science and technology. brA. Contraptions that Vonnegut calls social transplants replace contact with the awful real relatives and friends with synthetic ones. br1. Computers minimize human contact even