Sunday, June 28, 2020

The legal status of the Gaza Strip - Free Essay Example

Background The Gaza Strip came into existence following the 1948 war and the establishment of Israel. It absorbed dozens of thousands of Palestinian refugees who were expelled from their homes and lands inside Israel. As two thirds of its population were refugees, the Gaza Strip became one huge refugee camp. The then Israeli Prime Minister David Ben Gurion offered annexing the Gaza Strip to Israel believing that it would resolve the problem of having such concentration of Palestinian refugees in the northwest of the Negev. However, this offer was rejected by Egypt in the Lausanne conference of 1949.[1] Following the 1948 war, Egypt administered the Gaza Strip, but did not annex it. Egyptian military forces ruled over the Gaza Strip and managed all public and civil affairs.[2] During that period, Israel launched military incursions into the Gaza Strip to intimidate Palestinians and carried out indiscriminate air strikes. It eventually occupied the territory following the 1956 war against Egypt, but it was compelled under international pressure to withdraw from the territory in 1957.[3] The situation in the Gaza Strip remained as such until the six-day war in 1967 between Israel and neighboring Arab countries, following which Israel occupied the Gaza Strip; the West Bank, including E ast Jerusalem, which was under the Jordanian administration; the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula; and the Syrian Golan Heights. On 22 November 1967, the UN Security Council issued resolution 242, which is also known as land for peace resolution, calling for withdrawal of Israels armed forces from territories occupied in theà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ conflict.[4] However, the resolution has not been implemented. Israel ruled the Gaza Strip according to military orders issued by the military commander of the area with no consideration to the laws that were in force before the occupation. It refused to recognize that it was an occupying power in the Gaza Strip and insisted that it was only administering the area. During its occupation, Israel established 21 settlements on Palestinian lands throughout the Gaza Strip, where thousands of Israeli settlers lived. Palestinian resistance of the occupation in the Gaza Strip took the form of sporadic armed struggle led by the Palestine Liberation Organizat ion (PLO), especially in the 1970s. In the early 1980s the Palestinian struggle took the form of popular resistance with Palestinians, especially students, organizing mass demonstrations protesting against the Israeli occupation. This Palestinian movement matured with the outbreak of the first Intifada in December 1987, which marked a new stage of the history of the Gaza Strip that highlighted the reality of the Israeli occupation and the need for ending it. During the Intifada, Israeli forces killed hundreds of Palestinian civilians and wounded thousands of others. In the early 1990s, the situation witnessed a major development with some Palestinian armed groups attacking Israeli military targets inside the Gaza Strip, so Israel began to seek a solution to stop the losses of its soldiers. Therefore, it initiated secret negotiations with the PLO in Oslo which were concluded by the Declaration of Principles, under which the two parties agreed that an autonomous Palestinian authority would be established and the peace process between them would be based on the land for peace principle. In May 1994, the two sides signed Gaza-Jericho Agreement, according to which Israeli forces were redeployed in the Gaza Strip and in Jericho in the West Bank. They also agreed that a final settlement would be reached by the end of a five-year interim arrangements. In Summer 2000, US President Bill Clinton invited the late chairman of the Palestinian Authority Yasser Arafat and the then Israeli prime minister Ehud Barak to Camp David to negotiate a final solution for the Israeli-Palestinian conflicts, but the negotiations failed. Soon after, in September 2000, the second Palestinian Intifada broke out and it was different from the first one in that it involved the use of heavy weapons by Israeli forces against Palestinians, while Palestinian armed groups attacked Israeli military objectives and settlements in the Gaza Strip and West Bank. In September 2005 Israel completed it s unilateral disengagement plan and declared an end of its martial law in the Gaza Strip. Under the plan, Israeli forces redeployed outside the Gaza Strip and Israeli settlements were evacuated. By the implementation of the disengagement plan Israel claimed that the occupation of Gaza ended. However, in spite of withdrawing its troops and settlers from the Gaza Strip, Israel has continued to influence the life in the Gaza Strip: the Israeli military has continued to control the airspace and territorial water of Gaza, and the passage of persons and goods into Gaza; and Israel has not delivered to the Palestinian Authority the population registration records and has not agreed to the opening of Gazas seaport and airport.[5] In June 2007, following short internal fighting with Fatah movement, Hamas, which won the majority of seats in the elections of the Palestinian Legislative Council in January 2006, took over the Gaza Strip and expelled the Palestinian Authority security services and officials. Since 2005, Israeli has carried out a series of incursions and air strikes against the Gaza Strip, and even wide-scale military offensives, the most prominent of which were Operation Cast Lead (2008-2009), Operation Pillar of Defense in November 2012, and the latest one, Operation Protective Edge, which is addressed by this essay. Current Legal status of the Gaza Strip In order to categorize the latest conflict, Operation Protective Edge, under international law it is necessary to examine the current legal status of the Gaza Strip. Israels position In September 2005, Israel implemented its unilateral disengagement plan from the Gaza Strip, under which Israeli troops were redeployed outside the area and took positions at the border, and Israeli settlements were evacuated. Israel declared an end of its military rule of the Gaza Strip. It claimed that as it took these measures, its position as an occupying power in Gaza ended.[6] Brigadier General Aviv Kochavi, the departing Israeli military Gaza Region Commander, stated: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"the responsibility for whatever takes place inside befalls upon the [Palestinian] Authorityà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢.[7] On that same day the former Israeli military Chief of Southern Command, Major-General Dan Harel, issued an official decree claiming the end of military rule in the Gaza Strip.[8] The states position, as detailed before the Israeli Supreme Court in a case challenging the practice of sonic booms over the Gaza Strip, is that the laws of occupation, according to which an occupying powe r owes legal obligations towards pro ­tected persons living in occupied territory, apply when the territory is under the authority of the enemy and such authority is stablished and capable of being exercised.[9] At the legal level, the Israeli Supreme Court rejected a petition by human rights organizations against the restriction of electricity supplies to Gaza. It ruled that Israel is no longer responsible for public order in the Gaza Strip, nor for the well-being of the Gaza Strips population under the laws of occupation.[10] International Law and International Humanitarian Law In spite of unilaterally evacuating 8,000 settlers and removing military installments from the Gaza Strip in September 2005, Israel have maintained effective control of the Gaza Strip, so it remains the occupying power as defined by article 42 of the Hague Regulations 1907,[11] which stipulates: Territory is considered occupied when it is actually placed under the authority of the hostile ar my. The occupation extends only to the territory where such authority has been established and can be exercised. According to article 43, Israel as the occupying power of the Gaza Strip must take all the measures in [its] power to restore, and ensure, as far as possible, public order and safety, while respecting, unless absolutely prevented, the laws in force in the country. In fact, Israel have maintained control over the Gaza Strip through: Effective control of border crossings of the Gaza Strip into Israel; Control on the ground through repeated incursions and an imposing access-restricted areas along the eastern and northern border of the Gaza Strip; Control of the Gaza Stripà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s airspace; Control of the Gaza Stripà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s territorial waters and limiting the fishing areas; Control of the registry of the Palestinian population of the Gaza Strip; Control of tax policies and transfer of tax revenues; Control of the of the Palestinian Authoritys ability to exercise governmen ­tal functions.[12] Under the current situation, the powers Israel exercises from the borders enable it to control the life within the Gaza Strip. As shown in the case of Denmark during the Second World War, the occupier may leave in place an existing local administration or allow a new authority to be established for as long as it preserves the ultimate authority. Under the Oslo Accords and other related agreements, Israel has transferred to the Palestinian Authority some powers and functions within the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, but kept for itself the ultimate authority, especially with regards to security. When Israel implemented the unilateral disengagement and evacuated its troops and settlers from the Gaza Strip, it left in place a Palestinian local administration, but there is no local governing body to which full authority was transferred.[13] Israels justification for its offensive on Gaza In a statement to the international community, the Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu s aid:[14] Hamas and other terrorist groups in Gaza are firing rockets on cities throughout the State of Israelà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ No country on earth would remain passive in the face of hundreds of rockets fired on its cities and Israel is no exceptionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ I spoke with several world leaders. I appreciated their expressions of strong support for our right and our duty to defend ourselves, and this is what we will continue to do. Israel claimed that it was acting in self-defense in Gaza, and attempted to portray itself as the victim in the conflict. The United States endorsed this justification for the use of force. However, Gaza is not an independent state and Israel accepts this but instead sees Gaza as a hostile entity, a concept that is unknown to international law and one that Israel has never explained. The status of Gaza is clear à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" it is an occupied territory and part of the occupied Palestinian territory. Effective control is the test of occupation as recently confirmed by the International Court of Justice in dispute between the Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda. Concerning the case of Gaza, Israeli physical presence in the territory is not necessary as Israel retains effective control over the territory by other means. It uses modern technology to control all aspects of life in Gaza.[15] Israel argues that it can invoke the right to self-defense under international law. It has attempted to frame rocket fire from Gaza as an armed attack within the meaning of Article 51 of the UN Charter to justify its offensive on Gaza. However, the International Court of Justice rejected this faulty legal interpretation in its 2004 Advisory Opinion. The ICJ pointed out that an armed attack that would trigger Article 51 of the UN Charter must be carried out by a sovereign state, but the attacks by Palestinians emerge from a territory that is under Israels jurisdiction. [16] The ICJs Opinion is complementary to the UN General Assembl y Resolution 2694 adopted on 30 November 1970, which affirms the legitimacy of the struggle of peoples under colonial and alien domination recognized as being entitled to the right of self-determination to restore to themselves that right by any means at their disposal. The Resolution also considers that the acquisition and retention of territory in contravention of the right of the people of that territory to self-determination is inadmissible and a gross violation of the Charter and condemns those governments that deny the right to self-determination of peoples recognized as being entitled to it, especially of the peoples of southern Africa and Palestine. The rejection of Israel argument concerning Article 51 of the UN Charter leaves Israel at risk of prosecution for the crime of aggression.[17] Military or belligerent occupation is a status recognized by IHL. According to the Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons (Fourth Geneva Convention) of 1949, t o which Israel is a party, a state is allowed to occupy a territory acquired in an armed conflict, but such occupation must be temporary pending a peace settlement. Israel as the occupying power has obligations to protect and ensure the welfare of the Palestinian civilian population in Gaza, but it has breached its obligations, and has perpetrated violations of the Fourth Geneva Convention by launching a series of military campaigns against Gaza and imposing an illegal siege on the densely populated area as a form of collective punishment prohibited by Article 33 of the Convention. Before 2005, Palestinian resistance of the occupation was directed against Israeli forces present in the Gaza Strip, but following the imposition of the total siege and launching a series of military attacks on Palestinians in the Gaza Strip, Palestinian armed groups began to fire rockets into Israeli territory in an attempt to lift the siege and end the belligerent occupation. Occupation in itself is an act of aggression and it is a self-evident legal and moral principle that an aggressor can never rely upon self-defense to justify using force against resistance to its own aggression. This principle is demonstrated in the judgments of the Nuremberg tribunals. A Nuremburg judge put it as follows: One of the most amazing phenomena of this case which does not lack in startling features is the manner in which the aggressive war conducted by Germany against Russia has been treated by the defense as if it were the other way around. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦If it is assumed that some of the resistance units in Russia or members of the population did commit acts which were in themselves unlawful under the rules of war, it would still have to be shown that these acts were not in legitimate defense against wrongs perpetrated upon them by the invader. Under International Law, as in Domestic Law, there can be no reprisal against reprisal. The assassin who is being repulsed by his intended victim m ay not slay him and then, in turn, plead self- defense. (Trial of Otto Ohlendorf and others, Military Tribunal II-A, April 8, 1948) [18] [1] J.P. Filiu, Gaza: A History, UK, Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 311. [2]Legal Status in Palestine, Information Center, Institute of Law, Bir Zeit University, Ramallah,, (accessed 24 October 2014) [3] Filiu, supra note 1. [4] UN Security Council Resolution 242/1967, S/RES/242 (22 November 1967), available from [5] Y. Shany, Faraway, So Close: The Legal Status of Gaza after Israels Disengagement, International Law Forum, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, August 2006, p. 7. [6] Gaza Strip, BTselem à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" The Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories,, (accessed 25 October 2014). [7] IDF Spokesperson Office, Mission Completed, 12 September 2005, cited in Y. Shany, Faraway, So Close: The Legal Status of Gaza after Israels Disengagement, International Law Forum, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Augus t 2006, p. 3. [8] Ibid. [9] Israeli Supreme Court, 10265/05 Physicians for Human Rights v. Defense Minister, States submission of July 11, 2006, cited in Disengaged Occupiers: The Legal Status of Gaza, position paper, Gisha à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Legal Center for Freedom of Movement, January 2007, p. 23 (all translations of court documents into English are by Gisha). [10] BTselem, supra note 1. [11] N. Erakat, Humanitarian law and Operation Protective Edge: a survey of violations and remedies, expert analysis, Norwegian Peacebuilding Resource Centre, August 2014, p. 2. [12] Disengaged Occupiers: The Legal Status of Gaza, position paper, Gisha à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Legal Center for Freedom of Movement, January 2007, p. 10. [13] Report of the United Nations Fact-Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict, A/HRC/12/48, September 2009, para. 278 and 279. [14] A Statement from PM Netanyahu to the International Community, the Yeshiva World News, 10 July 2014, https://www.theyeshiv (accessed on 1 November 2014). [15] J. Dugard, Debunking Israels self-defense argument, Opinion, Al-Jazeera America, 31 July 2014, (accessed on 1 November 2014). [16] N. Erakat, Humanitarian law and Operation Protective Edge: a survey of violations and remedies, Expert Analysis, Norwegian Peacebuilding Resource Center, August 2014. [17] J. M. Leas, Why the Self-Defense Doctrine Doesnt Legitimize Israel Assaults on Gaza, Counter Punch, 27 December 2012, (accessed on 1 November 2014). [18] M. Mandel, Israels Unjust War on Gaza, Self-Defense against Peace, Global Search à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Center for Research on Globalization, 7 August 2014, https://www.globalre (accessed on 1 November 2014).

Monday, May 25, 2020

Research Is A Critical Part Of Becoming A Practitioner

While it may not seem important, research is a critical part of becoming a practitioner. Understanding statistics will help you become a more compassionate and helpful counselor because it will help guide your choice of interventions. Evidence based knowledge is ethical and helps guide your effectiveness along with helping you to avoid being misled by those who are marshalling support for their own agenda. Research encompasses a large range of activities which can be incorporated into everyday professional practice. Research data and methods can be put into two categories – quantitative and qualitative. The social sciences have been a quantitative field since its conception but a qualitative approach to psychological research has gained†¦show more content†¦Finally, the last step involves using math to analyze the information and this is done with statistics. There are four types of quantitative research: survey, correlational, causal-comparative and experimental. Survey research is extremely common and uses sampling polls, interviews and questionnaires to get a feel for the behavior. It can be conducted with a single group or a comparison of several but it is important to question people at random to obtain more accurate findings across a greater span. Correlational research is the measure of which two variables are related. If one variables increase tends to be associated with an increase in the other variable then this is known as a positive correlation. An example would be height and weight. Taller people tend to be heavier. (McLeod, 2008). If an increase tends to be associated with a decrease in the other then this is known as a negative correlation. An example would be height above sea level and temperature. As you climb the mountain (increase in height) it gets colder (decrease in temperature) (McLeod, 2008). When there is no re lationship between the two variables there is a zero correlation. Causal-comparative research involves comparison research and exposes the cause and effect of a given relationship between two variables. The study of two or more groups does not focus on their relationship. Instead, it tries to identify how the different groups in the same circumstance are

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Biological Differences Between Males And Females - 1176 Words

Sex is defined as â€Å"the average, reliable, biological differences between males and females† (Auleb 1). One biological difference between males and females is in external genitalia: males have penises whereas females have vaginas. Sexuality refers to one s sexual orientation, sexual behaviors, and capacity for sexual feelings ( Someone who is not sexually attracted to anyone may identify themselves as asexual. And sexual identity is one s conception of themselves in terms of to whom they are sexually and romantically attracted, if they experience sexual or romantic attraction at all ( Someone who is attracted to people regardless of gender may identify as bisexual, or as pansexual if they do not adhere to the belief that there are only two genders. One s sexual behaviors and attitudes towards sex and sexuality may be governed by their values, of which there are two types. Formal values are what one says they believe; informal values are w hat one actually does (Auleb 3). If someone says that people should wait until marriage to have sex, that is their formal values. If they abstain from sex until marriage, that is their informal value. Ideally, one s formal values and informal values are in sync, for if they are not, one may find themselves in a situation in which they are unready or unwilling to participate. One s values do not form in a vacuum and are shaped by their society and culture. Family, religion, school, media, and personalShow MoreRelatedBiological Sex, Gender, And Gender Roles901 Words   |  4 PagesFrom the moment that the parent learns the biological sex of the baby, even as early as the ultrasound, they begin the first step of making many steps towards the long journey of the child’s socialization.   Even as they consider what the child should be named, they decide whether it is a boy or a girl name and then they proceed with decisions such as what color the room should be painted in associ ation with the biological sex of the child. Will the child be dressed in frilly pink dresses or in blueRead MoreSex, Gender, And Gender1468 Words   |  6 PagesPopular understanding reflects the view that sex refers to ones biological functions in comparison to gender, which is solely explained as a cultural impact in depicting ones identity. The conveying of these two concepts create implications in demonstrating the understanding of ones sex or gender as distinct elements, of personal characteristics and human traits. Sex and gender are two contrasting features constantly interrelating, in day-to-day lives. A concise narrowing will be drawn from thisRead MoreThe Importance of Biological Factors in the Development of Gender Identity766 Words   |  4 PagesThe Importance of Biological Factors in the Development of Gender Identity The biosocial theory suggests that gender identity develops as a result of the obvious biological differences between boys and girls and the hormonal differences between the sexes which can be observed in the foetus from about six weeks (Durkin, 1995). Supporting evidence has been found through animal studies, such as that by Young, Goy and Phoenix (1964) who gave testosterone to pregnant monkeysRead MoreEvaluate The Difference Of The Differences Between Males And Females?1342 Words   |  6 Pages Though males and females have different amounts of hormones, they both have fundamentally the same biological structure. This can be seen through the Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS). 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By doing this we have found that our results are consistent with the findings of Halari et al (2005); Females and Males will differ in scores on tasks to do with Verbal FluencyRead MoreThe Current Day And Age Essay1266 Words   |  6 PagesIn the current day and age, gender can be a very controversial topic. Back in the early 1950’s, there were very clearly defined gender roles for males and females. It is no longer as simple as it once was to define gender. Factors such as sociocultural influence, the scientific difference between â€Å"gender† and â€Å"sex†, and politics all play into gender roles and gender identity. America’s cultural idea of masculinity and femininity can also differ from other cultures making it a unique definitionRead MoreIs Gender Identity the Result of Biology?946 Words   |  4 Pagesbeings are born sexual. They develop a strong sense o f being male and female, the human behaviour of being a man or a woman is called gender identity. The characteristics of being a man or a woman involve biological, psychological, and sociological factors. People from all cultures have acted in relationships in different ways that are influenced by their cultural traditions and laws about sex. Human sexuality and how males and females act within the relationship can be considered as physicallyRead MoreThe traditional biological understandings of sex and gender create a binary concept mainly in the800 Words   |  4 PagesThe traditional biological understandings of sex and gender create a binary concept mainly in the Western culture by having two strictly fixed options of male or female. This binary notion of gender and sex was put to the test by both Anne Fausto-Sterling and Oyeronke Oyewumi. Sterling argues that rather than just two separate ends, biological gender occurs across a continuum of possibilities. This spectrum of anatomical deviation by itself should be enough to disregard the simplistic notion ofRead MoreComparative Analysis Of Strategies And Views Of Katha Pollitt And Aaron Devor1148 Words   |  5 Pageshas arised on the behaviors and roles of genders. Feminist movements were purposed to achieve, the rights of women based on their roles equal to men in the society. Which led to debate over differences between abilities and preferences of gender that are the basis of different and unequal roles of males and females. Girls and boys have different preferences and divergent responses to same situations since their childhood which gradually increases with their growth. Their choice of toys, activitiesRead MoreRelationship Between Female And Female1074 Words   |  5 Pagescontracting those male take and stay away from due to reasoning behind human nature. â€Å"Outside the law courts, in gender relations, assumptions are often held as if there were an essentialist â€Å"nature† distinguishing men and women and that they have separate needs based on their biology† (30). Meaning any distinguishes made between male and female are all treated as part of ‘nature’ and they are different in multiple aspects in society and how they act due to their differentiated biological makeup. It is

Friday, May 15, 2020

Women s Voices Of Mainstream Literature Essay - 2026 Words

Jamie Coffey Writing for the Liberal Arts Professor Bissell 23 December 2016 Women in Writing Women’s voices in mainstream literature has morphed and transformed throughout the years. From early 17th century with the first female poet Anne Bradstreet all the way to 1960’s housewife heroes in novels, women’s roles in text has reflected their place in society during date of publication. Art mirrors real life as the saying goes, and that’s very much applicable to literary arts especially. Women’s place in society has definitely progressed since Puritan time and early America but has their track progressed in as linear line as suspected. With benchmarks such as the suffrage to vote to the first ever female big party candidate for the presidential election, it’s suspected that women have only gone up in their rights to speak and their strength of voice in society. Taking a second look at perceptions and everyday obstacles women have faced throughout time paints a much more scattered and branching line of progression. Progr ess may not be as straightforward as suspected. Anne Bradstreet was the first woman to be recognized as an accomplished New World Poet. Although Bradstreet did not attend school, she did receive an excellent education from her father and from her extensive reading in the well-stocked library of the estate of the Earl of Lincoln, where she lived while her father was steward from 1619 to 1630. Although Bradstreet had eight children between the years 1633 andShow MoreRelatedHarriet Jacobs : A Slave For Ten Years1184 Words   |  5 PagesProfessor Brown Afro-American Literature 28 April 2017 Essay One Harriet Jacobs was a slave for ten years. Then after she began writing in 1853. Jacob s work reflected style, tone, and plot. It has been known as the nostalgic or household novel, prevalent fiction of the mid nineteenth century. It was composed for women that focused on home, family, womanly, unobtrusiveness, and marriage. Jacobs utilized nostalgic fiction to obtain white audiences. Jacob s works typify the strain betweenRead More Sandra Cisneros Writing Essay1278 Words   |  6 Pagesfor women to speak their voice and forever change the culture of Latino/a markets. Not only did it express identity/gender roles of women and relationships, but using these relationships to combine the cultures of Mexican and American into a hybrid breed. This novel, should have been a view-point for the future to show that there is more to life than just gender and race. Concluding this, the articles that helps define this is â€Å"The Latino/a Canon and the Emergence of Post-Sixties Literatu re† andRead MoreArticle Review : Geek Policing : Fake Geek Girls And Contested Attention896 Words   |  4 Pagesuses Bourdieu’s theory of fields and capital, complemented by literature on geeks, authenticity and boundary policing; this allows the ability to identify the reciprocal relationship between the policing of identity and the policing of social boundaries. â€Å"Finally, the conversation tended to manifest the values of dominant members meaning that, in a discourse started by a woman to encourage other women to be geeky, some of the loudest voices were those judging women’s bodies and brains according to traditionallyRead MoreHistory of the Blues Essay1018 Words   |  5 Pagestoward The Blues. Each article makes Blues Musics social and musical importance and impact blaringly obvious. Summary: Articles pertaining to the history and importance of The Blues. 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Most of them are hopeless addicts; most work at jobs where they are paid in vials of crack instead of cash; most see no escape; and by the end of his book, many of Bourgois s informants have died of overdoses and violence. The section ofRead Morestudy on toni morrison Essay2402 Words   |  10 PagesYing-Hua,Liao Introduction Toni Morrison was the winner of the 1993 Nobel Prize for Literature. She is a prominent contemporary American writer devoted to the black literary and cultural movement. Her achievements and dedication to the promotion of black culture have established her distinguished status in American literature. Many critics applaud Toni Morrison’s artistic talent and contribution to American literature. Darwin T. Turner, for example, has thus commented: â€Å"Morrison has already achieved

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Advantages and Disadvantages of Communication Technology

The Advantages and disadvantages of communication technology. As a very young child I recall my mother trying to get in contact with a family member in Co. Donegal. The lady she was trying to track down did not have a telephone so the means of contact were very awkward. She had to write a letter to the lady first and foremost and ask her to get in contact. After about 3 days the lady called my mother from a payphone in the town. In order for this woman to call she had to cycle 2 miles into the nearest town. Last year my parents went to spend Christmas in Australia with cousins and on Christmas day at 10.00 Irish time I was able to speak to them and see them via Skype in 21.00 Australian time. Skype is a program that allows a person†¦show more content†¦Communication - With the help of information technology, communication has also become cheaper, quicker, and more efficient. We can now communicate with anyone around the globe by simply text messaging them or sending them an email for an almost instantaneous response. The internet has also opened up face to face direct communication from different parts of the world thanks to the helps of video conferencing. Bridging the cultural gap - CT has helped to bridge the cultural gap by helping people from different cultures to communicate with one another, across both geographical and also language barriers with the advent of high speed wireless connections and language converting software programmes. More time - IT has made it possible for businesses to be open twenty four hours a day seven days a week all over the globe. This means that a business can be open anytime anywhere, making purchases from different countries easier and more convenient. It also means that you can have your goods delivered right to your doorstep with having to move a single muscle. Creation of new jobs - Probably the best advantage of information technology is the creation of new and interesting jobs. Computer programmers, Systems analysers, Hardware and Software developers and Web designers are just some of the many new employment opportunities created with the help of IT amp; CT. Some disadvantages ofShow MoreRelatedAdvantages and Disadvantages of Communication Technology9782 Words   |  40 Pagesare expected to be paid after one year. Examples include bonds, long-term notes, and lease obligations. (b) Bonds are a form of interest-bearing notes payable used by corporations, universities, and governmental agencies. 2. (a) The major advantages are: (1) Stockholder control is not affected—bondholders do not have voting rights, so current stockholders retain full control of the company. (2) Tax savings result—bond interest is deductible for tax purposes; dividends on stock are not. Read MoreAdvantages and Disadvantages of Technology/Interpersonal Communication in Criminal Justice789 Words   |  4 PagesAdvantages and Disadvantages of Technology Tammy J. Little Axia Western International University Online ADJ/360: Interpersonal Communication in Criminal Justice Hiram Porter July 2, 2006 Advantages and Disadvantages of Technology With the increase of violent crimes come the advantages and disadvantages of modern technology in law enforcement. Law enforcement employs the use of stun guns and is equip with car video surveillance. We will examine some of the issues that contain some validityRead MoreShort Report on the Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Communications and Information Technology628 Words   |  3 PagesTitle: Communications Assessment Technique: Short Report Title: Short Report on the Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Communications and Information Technology. 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TechnologyRead MoreUses of Voice Over Internet Protocol 1141 Words   |  5 PagesVOIP: Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) can be defined as a series of technologies and technique that is used for release of voice communications and multimedia through Internet Protocol networks. In some cases, this technique is referred to as a means of converting analog audio signals into digital data that can be delivered through an Internet Protocol. The use of the technique is attributed to its ability to transform standard Internet connection into a platform for free phone calls. InRead MoreWhat Are the Advantages and Disadvantages for Individuals and Society of the Reliance on Communicating Via Computers1004 Words   |  5 PagesWhat are the advantages and disadvantages for individuals and society of the reliance on communicating via computers? (Discussion Essay) Introduction: In today’s world, communication is one of the key elements that people across the world can connect with one another. 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Juvenile Delinquency Is Participation Of Illegal Behavior...

Juvenile Delinquency is participation of illegal behavior by minors. Although it is no single path to juvenile delinquency, the presence of several risk factors often increases a youth’s chance of offending. Risk factors have been defined as those characteristics, variables, or hazards that, if present for a given individual, make it more likely that this individual, rather than someone selected from the general population, will develop a disorder(May 2014). Risk factors predict an increased probability of later offending but it is true that certain protective factors may work to offset risk factors. To determine this, an assessment is given to the juvenile. This risk assessment will configure the type of intervention that will best suit the individual youth needs in order to decrease their risk of offending. The top three key social factors that contribute to juvenile delinquency in the 21st Century are family, peers, and community. In this paper I will focus on the different aspects of each top key social factor and the affects it will have on the juvenile. Family is the biggest influence for early on-set juvenile delinquency risk factors, primarily affecting children 6-11 years of age (Shader). Children learn basic concepts about good and bad from their family; they make their values and set the norm for society. Majority of the adolescents who show delinquent behaviors at an early age in any form come from families that could not give firm foundations to the children.Show MoreRelatedThe Problem Of Juvenile Delinquency Essay1201 Words   |  5 PagesJuvenile delinquents are defined as being minors between the ages of 10 and 18. To be considered an delinquent the minor has committed some act that violates the law. These acts aren’t called crimes as they would be for adults. Rather than being called crimes, when committed by minors these acts are called delinquent acts. Delinquent acts generally fall into two categories. The first type of delin quent act is one that would be considered a crime had an adult committed it. The second type of delinquentRead MoreBroken Homes and Juvenile Delinquency1099 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction: Juvenile Delinquency has been an important area of study since the turn of the twentieth century. And has reached to a point where it is now considered a social phenomenon. When we look into the word social, it could be viewed as an issue that has to do with the way we are socialized into society. However, for this purpose we would have to look at some very important questions like: How is the concept of juvenile delinquency defined? Who commits delinquent acts? How much delinquency occursRead MoreThe Juvenile Delinquency Is Rooted From Within Juvenile Delinquent Behaviors1823 Words   |  8 PagesYouth Participation in Gangs Tomas Quiroz CRM 120 California State University, Fresno, CA March 2, 2017 â€Æ' In relevance to the course of juvenile delinquency, I selected the topic of gangs. I feel that this topic is a problem in our society that is rooted from within juvenile delinquent behaviors. Now although this is a very broad subject matter, I focused my research on the mixture of distinct traits, delinquent behaviors, and early childhood experiences, that are involved among adolescent youthRead MoreJuvenile Delinquency And Its Impact On Society1894 Words   |  8 PagesJuvenile Delinquency has been a major issue challenging various law enforcement professionals and sociology researchers around the world. Acts of delinquency committed by the juvenile sector particularly disrupts the social order of an egalitarian society where individual freedom is a primary societal goal. The bringing up of juveniles on the right social path requires the effort of the overall society, local community, and the family. There have been many efforts made in the U.S. to control juvenileRead MoreJuvenile Delinquency : A Controversial Issue Within The Criminal Justice System2342 Words   |  10 Pages Juvenile delinquency has become a controversial issue within the Criminal Justice system. In the United States, juvenile delinquency refers to disruptive and criminal behavior committed by an individual under the age of 18. In many states, a minor at the age of 16 to 17  ½ can be tried as an adult. Once the individual reaches adulthood, the disruptive and criminal behavior is recognized as a crime. However, the criminal justice system has divided juvenile delinquency into two general types of categoriesRead MoreCauses Of Juvenile Delinquency. Authors John Hagan And1601 Words   |  7 PagesCauses of Juvenile Delinquency Authors John Hagan and Bill McCarthy of Cambridge University offer an insight between the relationship between juveniles and their participation to criminal activities. According to them, the primary theories they employed in understanding the dynamics of youth taking to the street are control theory and strain theory (Benjamin, 1999). 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TheRead More The Development of Childhood Throughout History Essay3065 Words   |  13 Pageswere rarely enforced, and many children continued to be subjected to unfair treatment. (Siegel 15) Before the 20th Century children were treated with extreme cruelty in the home, school and by law enforcement. There was little difference between juvenile and adult offenders and both children and adults were eligible for the same type punishment. As society became more aware and sensitive to the needs of children, treatment of these children changed and it became apparent that these children formed

Analysis of My Health Record for Electronic Medical- myassignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about theAnalysis of My Health Record for Electronic Medical. Answer: Introduction The My Health Record is a secure online summary of the health information of an individual. An individual is able to control their personal records. The health information could be shared with doctors to gain proper information related to their health and get the appropriate medical facilities. The online portal is able to store existing records and is designed in such a way that the records could be integrated into the existing systems of local clinics (Charles, Gabriel Furukawa, 2013). Discussion Problems with the Health Record Systems In the modern age of technological advancements, most of the medical counters still use the paper based methods of recording information. Although the electronic method of health information record has several benefits, but the use of such online methods is still meagre. The electronic medical record (EMR) could be extremely helpful in saving time and cost of the patient in the time of critical situations. There are several problems that are identified with the EMR, which may include increased time of provider, lack of standards, threats to confidentiality and down time of computers. The concern related to EMR systems is having computer down time. In this scenario, the threat of accessing to the right piece of information at the real time is true. Yet the increasing reliability on computer systems and networks is able to resolve the problem (Bowman, 2013). Another significant problem which arises with EMR systems is the lack of proper systems in order to interchange information. Although a number of system standards exist for the transmission of pure data, there is still no agreement in areas of patient signs and symbols. Security and confidentiality of the data of the patient is also an important area of concern for the EMR systems. Well-known experts of privacy have listed the threats that may misuse the information of the patients (Demirkan, 2013). Capabilities of My Health Record System The My Health Record is able to record the health information of an individual on an online platform. The primary goal of this system is to serve as an origin of the observations of the clinician and a thorough analysis of the patient. The previous records of the patients would be stored online and based on those reports the doctors would be able to suggest better healthcare facilities to the patients. The health information of a patient is being currently distributed across different locations that may include hospitals, general practices, imaging centers and health specialists. With the introduction of the My Health Record system, different healthcare organizations would have much more benefits such as faster and easy access to more information related to healthcare (Appari, Eric Johnson Anthony, 2013). The health record system contains health summary of an individual, event summary, discharge summary, records of medication and letter from the specialist doctor. The records in the healthcare system could be viewed individually. They could also enter information, which would help the doctors to keep track of the health of the individual. Benefits of My Health Record System It should be taken into consideration about how patients would get benefited from digital health technology. Any visit to a healthcare specialist, hospital or a medical facility would result in the creation of some important information related to the health of an individual. The My Health Record System would provide access to the summary of the health information, the ability to keep a track of their immunizations, allergies and medications, and the ability to share their personal health information with every healthcare providers who would be involved with their health (King et al., 2014). Another important benefit of the health record system is the Electronic Transfer of Prescriptions (ETP). With the help of My Health Record System, an individual would be able to download and contribute updated information about their health to the providers of healthcare. They could also share better information of the related diseases which have affected the patients and prescribe better medication. The system would also increase efficiencies that might help to reduce the number of unnecessary repeated tests which might reduce the costs of medical services that are implied on the patients (Woods et al., 2013). Conclusion Based on the above discussion, it could be concluded that the My Health Record System could provide much more benefits to the individual in terms of better healthcare facilities as compared to the existing system of healthcare that are mainly manual based. Such mechanisms should be implemented in order to ensure that the information of the patient would not be viewed by inappropriate users. Altogether this new healthcare system would be beneficial in the future of healthcare and for the people. References Appari, A., Eric Johnson, M., Anthony, D. L. (2013). Meaningful use of electronic health record systems and process quality of care: evidence from a panel data analysis of US acute?care hospitals.Health services research,48(2pt1), 354-375. Bowman, S. (2013). Impact of electronic health record systems on information integrity: quality and safety implications.Perspectives in Health Information Management,10(Fall). Charles, D., Gabriel, M., Furukawa, M. F. (2013). Adoption of electronic health record systems among US non-federal acute care hospitals: 2008-2012.ONC data brief,9, 1-9. Demirkan, H. (2013). A smart healthcare systems framework.It Professional,15(5), 38-45. King, J., Patel, V., Jamoom, E. W., Furukawa, M. F. (2014). Clinical benefits of electronic health record use: national findings.Health services research,49(1pt2), 392-404. Woods, S. S., Schwartz, E., Tuepker, A., Press, N. A., Nazi, K. M., Turvey, C. L., Nichol, W. P. (2013). Patient experiences with full electronic access to health records and clinical notes through the My HealtheVet Personal Health Record Pilot: qualitative study.Journal of medical Internet research,15(3).